The exact requirements for satisfying a Habilitation depend on individual universities. The recognised degrees fall in three levels, following the Qualifications Framework of the European Higher Education Area.
For some studies, specific end levels or disciplines are required, e. Education in the Netherlands In the Netherlandsthe structure of academic studies was altered significantly in when the " Tweefasenstructuur " Two Phase Structure was introduced Degree programs the Dutch Minister of Education, Wim Deetman.
It is considered Level on the framework.
This tied together in a three-level system both the new qualifications introduced as part of the Bologna process and the older, pre-Bologna qualifications, and covers qualifications from university institutions and higher Degree programs institutions for fine arts, music and dance AFAM institutions.
Almost all Dutch universities are government Degree programs universities, with only very few privately owned universities in existence i. Doctorates are issued with various designations, depending on the faculty: Jansen instead of drs.
Those who have multiple doctor titles may use dr. Multiple doctorates and honorary doctorates are often listed and even used in forms of address in German-speaking countries.
Those who had already begun their old-style Curius curriculum before that will still have to complete it as a six-year study nominal time.
Successful completion however does grant the student the Dutch degree of "drs. Completing the first phase successfully gives the student access to the second phase.
The former, which are considered higher status, are controlled by the state and issued by universities on behalf of the responsible ministry; the latter are controlled and granted by the universities themselves.
There are also Level 5 qualifications in certain vocational subjects e. Enrollment into Diplom and Magister programs is no longer possible. The use of the combination ir. However, officially the MD title is not known, nor legal to use in the Netherlands.
The " propedeutische fase" 1—2 years: However, programs leading to Staatsexamen did usually not make the transition to Bologna degrees.
People 21 years old or older who do not have the required entrance diplomas may opt for an entrance exam for being admitted to a higher education curriculum. These are one year and two year qualifications respectively and may be offered at second cycle or third cycle level, distinguished by adding I or II after the qualification name.
Students usually study at university for three to six year, depending on the field, before they take the first Staatsexamen. Promotion studies are structured ideally according to a preset time schedule of 4 to 6 years, during which the student has to be mentored by at least one professor. Additional effect was that students would be persuaded stringently to produce results within a preset time-frame, or otherwise discontinue their studies.
Dutch surgeons commonly are only granted access to surgeon training and positions after obtaining a doctorate PhD successfully. A doctorandus in law uses the title "meester" master, abbreviated as mr.
After gaining the diploma one can enter university and enrol in any curriculum e. These academic titles are protected by the Dutch government. However, in all disciplines the student is obligated to produce and publish a dissertation or thesis in book form.
After successfully obtaining a "drs. However, universities had to fulfill the new standard by the end of Since the implementation of the Bologna Process in France, things are going towards a simplification: Leiden University is the oldest, founded in These titles as equivalent to an LL.
The doctorandus in medicine title is granted after four years nominal time of the Curius curriculum, while the title physician is granted after six years nominal time of that curriculum. Some German universities no longer require the Habilitation, although preference may still be given to applicants who have this credential, for academic posts in the more traditional fields.
The "doctorale fase" 3—4 years: In the Netherlands, the degree MPhil is not legally recognised. The number of publications is often debated and varies considerably between the various disciplines.GCU offers degree programs in business, nursing, education, Christian studies, and health science.
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