Additionally, as the platforms are lit at all times, they also present a risk to migratory birds. Off shore hydrocarbon travel hundreds of kilometres, covering territories spanning tens of thousands of square kilometres.
They are also referred to as turbidity currents and their effects can be amplified through tectonic activity. Further, they often exacerbate other stresses already being sustained by fragile ecosystems depended upon by the economy and way of life of coastal human populations.
The Economic Survey and Economic Survey state current gas reserves at bn cubic meters translating in to gas reserves of The national oil companies will have to take the lead and a strategic stake in offshore Pakistan, before any global oil major shows interest, given the particular business dynamics of the region and the opening up of the Iranian upstream sector to the international market Almost the entire land mass and the offshore areas can possibly have high potential hydrocarbon plays, especially the Abyssal Fan system of the Indus offshore basin.
In view of the above discussion, and fiscal regime issues, it is imperative that Pakistani NOCs aggressively, and with an entrepreneurial spirit, start exploring for hydrocarbons in the Indus and Makran basins. In many cases, existing response technologies are inadequate to contain and recover spills, leading to serious or even catastrophic ecological damage to the marine environment, like the explosion of the BP Deepwater Horizon drilling platform in Aprilwhich resulted in over four million barrels of crude oil being spilt into the Gulf of Mexico.
Abyssal fans are the largest systems through which organic matter, rocks, minerals gets transported from land to sea and possess huge potential for hydrocarbon and gold exploration. Even in the absence of a spectacular disaster, leaks are commonplace.
Based on analogous evidence, one can assume that offshore Pakistan is probably sitting on huge hydrocarbon deposits. From a social perspective, can we justify favouring one activity based on a non-renewable resource when it presents risks for other well established activities like fishing and tourism?
And, lastly, even the decommissioning of platforms after the source has dried up, presents serious environmental problems. Noisy exploration But oil and gas exploration is no small matter.
Risky development Gas and oil exploration of course open the door to hydrocarbon production, which presents further risks for the marine environment. Sedimentary basins coverkm2 including both onshore and offshore, which to date remain under-explored, especially the offshore basins.
The seismic surveys involved consist of pummelling the seabed with powerful sound waves. In general, the rules and procedures to follow are insufficient to effectively mitigate environmental risks, with the initiative largely lying with the company.
According to Pakistan Basin Study ofthe country has six onshore and two offshore basins; offshore basins being the Indus basin and the Makran basin. With the looming depletion of global reserves, the rise of prices and international conflicts, it is becoming increasingly profitable to explore the ocean floors in search of new deposits.
As a contrast, the potential of submarine fan systems can be gauged from the fact that in place resource at the deepwater block in Bengal fan that contains the Dhirubhai discoveries initially stood at 25 TCF, essentially indicating that one find in the largest submarine fan in the world Bengal has a resource base greater than all remaining conventional gas reserves of Pakistan.
Drilling mud comes to rest on the ocean floors and, even if treated, represents a genuine toxic soup of heavy metals and hydrocarbons.
The total recoverable reserves of natural gas as per brochure on Ministry of Petroleum website are given at Frontier provinces, volatile security and political environments have not tended to deter oil and gas majors from pursuing hydrocarbon reservoirs and riches.
From a technical perspective, we should also be open to encountering high pressure, high temperature formations. Conflicts of use The problems associated with hydrocarbon exploration and production are all the more acute in that these activities conflict with other uses of the sea.
For example, excess gas is flared off by measure of security, producing hydrocarbon emissions.
Makran basin is also a frontier basin with negligible exploration activity, though, a few wells have been drilled which encountered high pressure formations and a blowout in Dec 06, · " Offshore ", when used relative to hydrocarbons, refers to an oil, natural gas or condensate field that is under the sea, or to activities or operations carried out in relation to such a field.
There are various types of platform used in the development of offshore oil and gas fields, and subsea facilities. Offshore exploration is performed. Offshore hydrocarbon releases are currently reported to HSE as dangerous occurrences under the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) and, more recently, the European Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No / now also applies in the UK and.
Offshore Hydrocarbons Operators are aggressively pushing into deeper and deeper waters offshore to explore for new oil and gas reservoirs.
As hydrocarbon demand continues to grow, reserves located in deep offshore areas take. "Offshore", when used relative to hydrocarbons, refers to an oil, natural gas or condensate field that is under the sea, or to activities or operations carried out in relation to such a field.
There are various types of platform used in the development of offshore oil and gas fields, and subsea facilities.
Hydrocarbon offer expertise for Offshore Platforms & Modules in India. Visit our website to get more information. Oil and other hydrocarbons are a prized resource.
With the looming depletion of global reserves, the rise of prices and international conflicts, it is becoming.Download