He argues that even in the early s the differences between Chinese and British agricultural productivity were minimal. An appreciation of the issues examined in the debate amongst contemporary scholars who have offered explanations of the great divergence in the development paths of the West and the East Instructional Objectives Identify the different ways historians have tried to explain the rise of the The great divergence debate history essay.
He argues that geographical factors created the conditions for more rapid internal superpower change Spain succeeded by France and then by the United Kingdom than was possible elsewhere in Eurasia.
China decided to continue a self-sustaining process of scientific and technological advancement on the basis of their indigenous traditions and achievements. The Political Economy of Merchant Empires, ed. James Tracy Cambridge, They cite literature which locates the impetus to development from urban processing industries sugar refining, coffee roasting, tea and tobacco blending, etc.
What is now at issue is to specify and measure the significance of endogenous compared to exogenous forces promoting economic growth in one part of the world economy Europe and restraining a similar momentum on the continents of Asia, Africa and Southern America.
Partially based on the ideas of Karl Marx, sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein developed an explanation for the rise of the West that was based on the concept of a "world system" that emerged with Europe as the core and its colonies as the periphery.
Although Chinese customary law specified that people within the village were to be offered the land first, Pomeranz states that most of the time the land was offered to more capable outsiders, and argues that China actually had a freer land market than Europe.
For Ming Dynasty China, he claims there existed repressive measures which stifled dissenting opinions and nonconformity. The East Indian and Chinese markets, the colonization of America, trade with the colonies, the increase in the means of exchange and in commodities generally, gave to commerce, to navigation, to industry an impulse never before known, and thereby, to the revolutionary element in the tottering feudal society, a rapid development.
Reading, as he did, over chronologies covering millennia, he recognized that the economies of India and China displayed impressive scientific and technical precocity.
This is a question which many scholars of economic history, sociology, and political economy, to name but three disciplines, have grappled with for well over a century. Unfortunately, the ad hoc comments made by Marx on Asian societies are now regarded as little more than typical Eurocentric speculations of his time, which led generations of his followers down a blind alley in search of supposedly ubiquitous and unchanging Asiatic modes of production.
Mortality and Living Standards in Europe and Asiaed. Of Liberty, Wealth and Equality Basingstoke, Max Weber argued in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism that capitalism in northern Europe evolved when the Protestant work ethic particularly Calvinist influenced large numbers of people to engage in work in the secular world, developing their own enterprises and engaging in trade and the accumulation of wealth for investment.
References to geology, geography and transportation problems do not seem to be sufficient to explain why China remained virtually an outsider throughout the age of steam? The rise of the West was not inevitable, but just a lucky accident.
Fernand Braudel, Civilization and Capitalism, 15th and 18th Century 3 vols. Pomeranz argues that India was not a very likely site for an industrial breakthrough, despite its sophisticated commerce and technologies. Furthermore, the convergence of Japan despite a poor endowment of natural resourcesundermines histories based on classical growth models.
Nevertheless, and for several reasons, the other leg of the revisionist explanation which follows the line taken by Adam Smith, Karl Marx and the World Systems School that the discovery, conquest and exploitation of the Americas also generated comparably large windfall gains and allowed Western Europe to circumvent the problems of diminishing returns afflicting oriental empires carries less conviction.
Marx found that the first transition from pre-capitalist to capital modes of production occurred first in Western Europe. Re-imagining Eurasia to c. Tim Brook and Geoffrey Blue Cambridge, Roy Bin Wong, China Transformed: Confucianism and Taoism he blames Chinese culture for the non-emergence of capitalism in China.
Before that date both countries were still pre-industrial economies following a similar path of diminishing returns and rising prices. Karl Marx and Max Weber.Ten Years of Debate on the Origins of the Great Divergence between the Economies of Europe and China during the Era of Mercantilism and Industrialization.
Essay Convergence and Divergence Debate over Ihrm Practices Convergence and Divergence Debate over IHRM Practices By: Anggun M.B Nowadays, there is an increasingly concern about convergence and divergence debate over Human Resource Management practices of MNCs that operate expandly accross the globe.
• Rethinking the rise of the West: The Great Divergence Debate • Rethinking the rise of the West: Global Commodities • Standards of Modernity – China and Europe ’ changing views of the rise of the West in the last 25 years illustrate the dynamic nature of the discipline of history.
Resources. Within European history, the topic of the Little Divergence, or when and why Northwestern Europe became significantly wealthier than the rest of Europe, has also produced much scholarship.2 A good introduction to the Great Divergence debate, to which this essay is indebted, is a chapter by Bishnupriya Gupta and Debin Ma.
• Rethinking the rise of the West: The Great Divergence Debate • Rethinking the rise of the West: Global Commodities • Standards of Modernity – China and Europe • Parallels in England and the Yangzi Basin of China in the s.
The "Great Divergence" and Comparative World History.
The Great Divergence Debate History Essay During the last decades, there has been a deep and intense debate on the origins of the Great Divergence between the Economies of Europe and 7 Pages (2, Words) - Last Modified: 23rd March,Download