Edward Younkins describes Atlas Shrugged as "an apocalyptic vision of the last stages of conflict between two classes of humanity—the looters and the non-looters. It was published in and made history several years later by becoming a best-seller through word of mouth. In this, however, Toohey has additional motives.
In the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, the architectural style that still dominated American building was Classical. The Economist reported that the year-old novel ranked 33 among Amazon. Its hero, Howard Roark, is an innovative architect, a man whose brilliant and radically new designs are not understood and are rejected by the majority of society.
He says that individual creators are the fountainhead of civilization. Ayn Rand wrote The Fountainhead, at one level, as a fervent warning to her fellow man of the unmitigated horrors of collectivism, whether of the Nazi, Fascist, or Communist variety; the evils that result in concentration camps; the extermination of millions of innocent victims; and the precipitation of world war.
In the character of Peter Keating, a conventional architect who goes by public taste, Ayn Rand provides an incisive glimpse into the soul of such an abject follower.
To this day, it sells well over a hundred thousand copies every year. Keating takes a job with the firm of Guy Francon, a powerful and influential architect who believes in copying classic buildings. Webb, another minion of Toohey, similarly reacts against and attacks all those architects who came before him.
One said it was a great book that would never sell; the other said it was trash but would sell well. One of them, Howard Kane, was an idealist dedicated to erecting the skyscraper despite enormous obstacles.
As historian James Baker described it, "The Fountainhead hardly mentions politics or economics, despite the fact that it was born in the s. She edited the final manuscript to remove the quotes and other allusions to him. Chambers is an ex-Communist. The Lord of the Rings and Atlas Shrugged.
He was initially quite favorable to it, and even after he and Rand ended their relationship, he still referred to it in an interview as "the greatest novel that has ever been written", although he found "a few things one can quarrel with in the book". Richard McLaughlin, reviewing the novel for The American Mercurydescribed it as a "long overdue" polemic against the welfare state with an "exciting, suspenseful plot", although unnecessarily long.
Cameron and Roark, in the novel, struggle against characters like the Dean of Stanton Institute, who believes that all the great ideas in architecture have been discovered already by the designers of the past, and that contemporary architects are simply to copy those ideas.
Cameron suffers defeat after defeat yet never gives in to the social hierarchy that wants him to modify his designs. Sullivan and Wright, in real life, battled against similar instances of conformity.
He calculates that she will emerge from the marriages more suited to him, so he bears the pain of losing her to other men. The nonconformist, too, places the beliefs of others first, before his own thinking; he merely reacts against them, instead of following them.
In her previous novels, Ayn Rand had also glorified the heroism of the freethinking human mind, although in different forms. In The Fountainhead, Rand also shows that nonconformity, often thought to be the opposite of blind obedience, is merely a variation on the same theme.
Later, he returns and rapes her. Roark seizes the drawing and marks over it, restoring his original work. Stephen Polk was set to direct. Next Character List Pop Quiz! Of course, they have no idea this is what he is about.
He refuses to use his relationship with Halsey to gain influence with Toohey. First the Communists took over her native Russia, then the Fascists came to power in Italy, then Hitler and the National Socialists took political control of Germany.
The struggle for individuality is not confined to Roark. Inshe took a break from it to write a novella called Anthem. As Ayn Rand wrote the novel, in the s, collectivism was rapidly engulfing the world.
Wynand is so strongly attracted to Dominique that he pays Keating to divorce her, after which Wynand and Dominique are married. She marries Keating and turns herself over to him, doing and saying whatever he wants, such as persuading potential clients to hire him instead of Roark.
With independent thought stifled, this society has lost all technological progress and reverted to a primitive condition. Roark works briefly at another firm, then opens his own office but has trouble finding clients and closes it down.The Fountainhead’s major theme is the need for integrity and independence as exemplified in the career of Howard Roark.
Roark is the fountainhead, or productive force, in the novel. A summary of Themes in Ayn Rand's The Fountainhead. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of The Fountainhead and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
The Fountainhead serves as an excellent introduction to both Ayn Rand's writing and her philosophy of Objectivism. All of the major intellectual themes that inform Rand's fiction and her subsequent philosophy are presented clearly in this novel.
This Study Guide consists of approximately 46 pages of chapter summaries, quotes, character analysis, themes, and more - everything you need to sharpen your knowledge of The Fountainhead.
Although not explicitly mentioned in the text, Ayn Rand is the founder of the philosophy of Objectivism, which. In her novel, ''The Fountainhead'', Ayn Rand explores the struggle between the individual and society. This lesson will introduce characters, provide a summary, and give an analysis of the book.
Nonconformity Many of the characters in The Fountainhead are described as nonconformists to illustrate Rand's idea that nonconformity, which is popularly believed to be a breaking away from social convention, is .Download